Theory of Economic Constructivism
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In this paper, a new tool for economic analysis and improvement of economic theories – the Theory of Economic Constructivism (TEC) – is considered. TEC is based on epistemological constructivism, duality theory, second-order cybernetics and network analysis of economic systems. From a single point of view based on an analysis of dual self-reference systems, emerging economic phenomena – autopoietic systems, circular and transit processes, communication networks – are described. The concept of closed, circular processes, as invariants of economic systems, ensuring sustainable economic development, is elaborated. A theoretical substantiation of the place, role and significance of closed structures at different levels in a management system is carried out. A network-based improvement of the balance model, taking into account the structure of linkages in the economy, is proposed. Examples illustrating the possibilities of calculating stable variants of structures are provided for different types of model economies. Using the topological apparatus of dual networks, the main variants of cash flows associated with the production sphere of the economy are considered. On the basis of the presented theoretical provisions, practical conclusions for improving the economy under the conditions of innovation and globalisation are drawn. The interrelation between exchange and contractual economies is affirmed. By contrast with contracting, exchange establishes relations between goods, recording the relations between operators exactly in those areas where they can only function jointly, supporting each other. When a chain of enterprises becomes isolated, forming a cycle that is balanced in its all nodes, a closed structure emerges, one that is absolutely independent from the external price landscape. A very significant part of the further progress of TEC can be connected with the formal characteristics and stability conditions of such closed loops (space cycles).